Corn Sugar and Blood And the Rise and Fall of the Cleveland Mafia

Chapter I

“Big Ange” and the Death of the Cleveland Mafia

In 1983, Angelo Lonardo, 72, one-time Cleveland Mafia boss, turned government informant. He shocked family, friends, law enforcement officers and particularly, criminal associates with his decision which was made after being sentenced to life plus 103 years for drug and racketeering convictions. The sentence came after a monumental investigation by local, state and federal agencies had all but wiped out the Cleveland Mafia.

“Big Ange” as he was called, was the highest ranking mafioso to defect. He testified in 1985 at the Las Vegas casino “skimming” trials in Kansas City and in 1986 at the New York Mafia “ruling commission” trials. Many of the nation’s biggest mob leaders were convicted as a result of these trials.

During his testimony, Lonardo told how at age 18, he avenged his father’s murder by killing the man believed to be responsible. He further testified that after that murder, he was responsible for the killings of several of the Porrello brothers, business rivals of his father during Prohibition.

Chapter II

Birth of the Cleveland Mafia

During the late eighteen hundreds, the four Lonardo brothers and seven Porrello brothers were boyhood friends and fellow sulphur mine workers in their hometown of Licata, Sicily. They came to America in the early nineteen hundreds and eventually settled in the Woodland district of Cleveland. They remained close friends. Several of the Porrello and Lonardo brothers worked together in small businesses.

Lonardo clan leader “Big Joe” became a successful businessman and community leader in the lower Woodland Avenue area. During Prohibition, he became successful as a dealer in corn sugar which was used by bootleggers to make corn liquor. “Big Joe” provided stills and raw materials to the poor Italian district residents. They would make the booze and “Big Joe” would buy it back giving them a commission. He was respected and feared as a “padrone” or godfather. “Big Joe” became the leader of a powerful and vicious gang and was known as the corn sugar “baron.” Joe Porrello was one of his corporals.

Chapter III

The First Bloody Corner

With the advent of Prohibition, Cleveland, like other big cities, experienced a wave of bootleg-related murders. The murders of Louis Rosen, Salvatore Vella, August Rini and several others produced the same suspects, but no indictments. These suspects were members of the Lonardo gang. Several of the murders occurred at the corner of E. 25th and Woodland Ave. This intersection became known as the “bloody corner.”

By this time, Joe Porrello had left the employ of the Lonardos to start his own sugar wholesaling business.

Porrello and his six brothers pooled their money and eventually became successful corn sugar dealers headquartered in the upper Woodland Avenue area around E. 110th Street.

With small competitors, sugar dealers and bootleggers, mysteriously dying violent deaths, the Lonardos’ business flourished as they gained a near monopoly on the corn sugar business. Their main competitors were their old friends the Porrellos.

Raymond Porrello, youngest of his brothers was arrested by undercover federal agents for arranging a sale of 100 gallons of whiskey at the Porrello-owned barbershop at E. 110th and Woodland. He was sentenced to the Dayton, Oh. Workhouse.

The Porrello brothers paid the influential “Big Joe” Lonardo $5,000 to get Raymond out of prison. “Big Joe”

failed in his attempt but never returned the $5,000.

Meanwhile, Ernest Yorkell and Jack Brownstein, small-time self-proclaimed “tough guys” from Philadelphia arrived in Cleveland. Yorkell and Brownstein were shakedown artists, and their intended victims were Cleveland bootleggers, who got a chuckle out of how the two felt it necessary to explain that they were tough. Real tough guys didn’t need to tell people that they were tough. After providing Cleveland gangsters with a laugh, Yorkell and Brownstein were taken on a “one-way ride.”

Chapter IV

Corn Sugar and Blood

“Big Joe” Lonardo in 1926, now at the height of his wealth and power left for Sicily to visit his mother and

relatives. He left his closest brother and business partner John in charge.

During “Big Joe’s” six-month absence, he lost much of his $5,000 a week profits to the Porrellos who took advantage of John Lonardo’s lack of business skills and the assistance of a disgruntled Lonardo employee. “Big Joe” returned and business talks between the Porrellos and Lonardos began.

They “urged” the Porrellos to return their lost clientele.

On Oct. 13th, 1927 “Big Joe” and John Lonardo went to the Porrello barbershop to play cards and talk business with Angelo Porrello as they had been doing for the past week. As the Lonardos entered the rear room of the shop, two gunmen opened fire. Angelo Porrello ducked under a table.

Cleveland’s underworld lost its’ first boss as “Big Joe” went down with three bullets in his head. John Lonardo was shot in the chest and groin but drew his gun and managed to pursue the attackers through the barbershop. He dropped his gun in the shop but continued chasing the gunmen into the street where one of them turned, and out of bullets, struck Lonardo in the head several times with the butt of his gun. John fell unconscious and bled to death.

The Porrello brothers were arrested. Angelo was charged with the Lonardo brothers’ murders. The charges were later dropped for lack of evidence. Joe Porrello succeeded the Lonardos as corn sugar “baron” and later appointed himself “capo” of the Cleveland Mafia.

Chapter V

The Cleveland Meeting

The trail of bootleg blood continued to flow with numerous murders stemming from the Porrello-Lonardo conflict.

Lawrence Lupo, a former Lonardo bodyguard was killed after he let it be known that he wanted to take over the Lonardos’ corn sugar business.

Anthony Caruso, a butcher who saw the Lonardos’ killers escape was shot and killed. It was believed that he knew the identities of the gunmen and was going to reveal them to police.

On Dec. 5th, 1928, Joe Porrello and his lieutenant and bodyguard Sam Tilocco hosted the first known major meeting of the Mafia at Cleveland’s Hotel Statler. Many major Mafia leaders from Chicago to New York to Florida were invited. The meeting was raided before it actually began.

Joe Profaci, leader of a Brooklyn, N.Y. Mafia family was the most well-known of the gangsters arrested. Within a few hours, to the astonishment of police and court officials, Joe Porrello gathered thirty family members and friends who put up their houses as collateral for the gangsters’ bonds. Profaci was bailed out personally by Porrello. A great controversy over the validity of the bonds followed.

Several theories have been given as to why the meeting was called. First, it was thought that the gangsters, local presidents of the Unione Siciliane, an immigrant aid society infiltrated by the Mafia, were there to elect a new national president. Their previous president, Frankie Yale had been recently killed by order of Chicago’s notorious Al Capone. Second, it was believed that the meeting may have been called

to organize the highly lucrative corn sugar industry. It was also said that the men were there to “confirm” Joe Porrello as “capo” of Cleveland.

Capone, a non-Sicilian was reported to be in Cleveland for the meeting. He left soon after his arrival at the

advice of associates who said that the Sicilians did not want him there.

Chapter VI

The Second Bloody Corner

As Joe Porrello’s power and wealth grew, heirs and close associates to the Lonardo brothers grew hot for revenge.

Angelo Lonardo, “Big Joe’s” 18-year-old son along with his mother and his cousin, drove to the corner of E. 110th and Woodland, the Porrello stronghold. There Angelo sent word that his mother wanted to speak to Salvatore “Black Sam” Todaro. Todaro, now a Porrello lieutenant, had worked for Angelo’s father and was believed to be responsible for his murder. In later years it was believed that he was actually one of the gunmen.

As Todaro approached to speak with Mrs. Lonardo whom he respected, Angelo pulled out a gun and emptied it into “Black Sam’s stocky frame. Todaro crumpled to the sidewalk and died.

Angelo and his cousin disappeared for several months reportedly being hid in Chicago courtesy of Lonardo friend Al Capone. Later it was believed that Angelo spent time in California with his uncle Dominick, fourth Lonardo brother who fled west when indicted for a payroll robbery murder in 1921.

Eventually Angelo and his cousin were arrested and charged with “Black Sam’s” murder. For the first time in Cleveland’s bootleg murder history justice was served as both young men were convicted and sentenced to life. Justice although served would be shortlived as they would be released only a year and a half later after winning a new trial.

Chapter VII

Rise of the Mayfield Road Mob

On October 20th, 1929, Frank Lonardo, brother to “Big Joe” and John was shot to death while playing cards. Two theories were given for his death; that it was in revenge for the murder of “Black Sam” Todaro and, that he was killed for not paying gambling debts. Mrs. Frank Lonardo, when told of

her husband’s murder screamed, “I’ll get them. I’ll get them myself if I have to kill a whole regiment!”

By 1929, Little Italy crime boss Frank Milano had risen to power as leader of his own gang, “The Mayfield Road Mob.” Milano’s group was made up in part of remnants of the Lonardo gang and was also associated with the powerful “Cleveland Syndicate,” Morrie Kleinman, Moe Dalitz, Sam Tucker and Louis Rothkopf. The Cleveland Syndicate was responsible for most of the Canadian booze imported via Lake Erie. In later years they got into the casino business. One of the their largest and most profitable enterprises was construction of the Desert Inn Hotel/Casino in Las Vegas. Dalitz would become known as the “Godfather of Las Vegas.”

Joe Porrello admired Milano’s political organization, the East End Bi-Partisan Political Club and, seeing the value in such influence, wanted to ally himself with the group. Milano refused. Later, Porrello was reported to have affiliated himself with the newly formed 21st District Republican Club. He hoped to organize the Woodland Avenue voters as Milano was doing on Mayfield road.

Chapter VIII

More Corn Sugar and Blood

By 1930, Milano had grown quite powerful. He had gone so far as to demand a piece of the lucrative Porrello corn sugar business. On July 5th, 1930, Porrello received a phonecall from Milano who had requested a conference at his Venetian Restaurant on Mayfield Road. Sam Tilocco and Joe Porrello’s brother Raymond urged him not to go.

At about 2:00 p.m., Joe Porrello and Sam Tilocco arrived at Milano’s restaurant and speakeasy. Porrello, Tilocco, and Frank Milano sat down in the restaurant and discussed business. Several of Milano’s henchmen sat nearby. The atmosphere was tense as Porrello refused to accede to Milano’s demands.

Porrello reached into his pocket for his watch to check the time. Two of Milano’s men, possibly believing that Porrello was reaching for his gun opened fire. Porrello died instantly woth three bullets in his head Simultaneously, a third member of Milano’s gang fired at Tilocco who was struck three times but managed to stagger out the door toward his new Cadillac. He fell to the ground as the gunmen pursued him, finishing him off with another six bullets.

Frank Milano and several of his restaurant employees were arrested but only charged with being suspicious persons. The gunmen were never actually identified. Only one witness was present in the saloon when the shooting started. He was Frank Joiner, a slot machine distributor whose only testimony was that he “thought” he saw Frank Milano in the restaurant during the murders.

Cleveland’s aggressive and outspoken Safety Director Edwin Barry, frustrated by the continually rising number of bootleg murders, ordered all known sugar warehouses to be padlocked. He ordered a policeman to be detailed at each one to make sure that no sugar was brought in or removed.

Meanwhile, the six Porrello brothers donned black silk shirts and ties and buried their most successful brother. The showy double gangster funeral was one the largest Cleveland had ever seen. Two bands and thirty-three cars overloaded with flowers led the procession of the slain don and his bodyguard. Over two hundred fifty automobiles containing family and friends followed. Thousands of mourners and curious on-lookers lined the sidewalks.

Cleveland’s underworld was tense with rumors of imminent warfare. Porrello brother Vincente-James spoke openly of wiping out everyone responsible for his brother’s murder.

Three weeks after his brother’s murder, Jim Porrello still wore a black shirt as he entered the I & A grocery and meat market at E. 110th Street and Woodland. As he picked out lamb chops at the meat counter, a Ford touring car, its’ curtains tightly drawn, cruised slowly past the store. A couple of shotguns poked out and two lasts of buckshot were fired, one through the front window of the store and one through the front screen door.

The amateur gunmen got lucky. Two pellets found the back of Porrello’s head and entered his brain. He was rushed to the hospital.

Chapter IX

“I think maybe they’ll kill all us Porrellos”

“I think maybe they’ll kill all us Porrellos. I think maybe they will kill all of us except Rosario. They can’t

kill him – he’s in jail.” Thus Ottavio Porrello grimly but calmly predicted the probable fate of he and his brothers as he waited outside Jim’s hospital room. Jim Porrello died at 5:55 p.m.

Two local petty gangsters were arrested and charged with murder. One was discharged by directed verdict and the other was acquitted. Like almost all of Cleveland’s bootleg related murders, the killers never saw justice.

About this time, it was rumored that the Porrello brothers were marked for extermination. The surviving

brothers went into hiding. Raymond, known for his cocky attitude and hot temper spoke like his brother James did of seeking revenge. Raymond was smarter though, he took active measures to protect himself.

On August 15th, 1930, three weeks after James Porrello’s murder, Raymond Porrello’s house was leveled in a violent explosion. He was not home at the time since he had taken his family and abandoned his home in anticipation of the attack.

Four days later Frank Alessi, a witness to the murder of “Big Joe” Lonardo’s brother Frank, was gunned down. From his death bed, he identified Frank Brancato as his assailant. Brancato was known mainly as a Lonardo supporter and suspect in several murders. Brancato was acquitted of Alessi’s murder.

Chapter X

In March of 1931, Rosario Porrello was paroled from Ohio’s London Prison Farm where he had served one year for carrying a gun in his car.

In mid-1931, National Mafia “capo di tutti capi” (boss of all bosses) Salvatore Maranzano was killed. His murder set in motion the formation of the first Mafia National Ruling Commission created to stop the numerous murders resulting from conflicts between and within Mafia families and to promote application of modern business practices to crime.

Charles “Lucky” Luciano was the main developer of the commission and was named chairman. Also named to the commission were Al Capone of Chicago, Joe Profaci of Brooklyn and Frank Milano of Cleveland.

In Dec. of 1931, Angelo Lonardo and his cousin Dominic Suspirato were released from prison after being acquitted of “Black Sam” Todaro’s murder during a second trial. Because he had avenged his father’s death and (for the most part) gotten away with it, he became a respected member of Frank Milano’s Mayfield Road Mob.

The thirst for revenge had not been satisfied for members of the Lonardo family. It was generally believed

that “Black Sam” Todaro instigated and perhaps took part in the murders of “Big Joe” and John Lonardo. However it was believed by members of the Lonardo family that the remaining Porrello brothers, particularly the volatile John and Raymond and eldest brother Rosario still posed a threat because of

the murders of Joe and James Porrello.

On Feb. 25th, 1932 Raymond Porrello, his brother Rosario and their bodyguard Dominic Gulino (known also by several aliases) were playing cards near E. 110th and Woodland Avenue. The front door burst open and in a hail of bullets the Porrello brothers, their bodyguard and a bystander went down. The Porrellos died at the scene. Gulino died a couple of hours later. The bystander eventually recovered from his

wounds.

Several hours after the murders, Frank Brancato, with a bullet in his stomach, dragged himself into St. John’s hospital on Cleveland’s west side. He claimed he was shot in a street fight on the west side. A few days later, tests on the bullet taken from Brancato revealed that it came from a gun found at the Porrello brothers murder scene. Although never convicted of either of the murders, Brancato was convicted of perjury for lying to a Grand Jury about his whereabouts during the murder. He served four years after a one to ten year sentence was commuted by Governor Martin L. Davey.

In 1933, Prohibition was repealed. The bootleg murders mostly stopped as organized crime moved into other enterprises. Angelo Lonardo continued his crime career as a respected member of the Cleveland family eventually rising through the ranks to run the northeast Ohio rackets in 1980.

In early 1933, in a sequel to the tragedy of the large Porrello family, Rosario’s son Angelo, 21, was killed in a fight over a pool game in Buffalo. It was said that he and his Uncle John were there trying to muscle in on the corn liquor business.

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The Definitive Art of Bookmaking and Odds Compiling

To appreciate the Job of the Bookmaker we must first dissect the methods and criteria to which he lends himself.

He must create or compile the Odds of each and every horse race on every race card. Every single day.

This is a very difficult Job and mistakes are often made.

So in order to gain an edge when betting we need to find any faults or mistakes that may occur during the compiling process.

The complete process of compiling will be known as creating “The Book”.

This will be addressed in the following 9 stages.

Understanding the numbers is vital to anyone serious about betting to win!

This will be outlined in the following nine stages-

The Odds

The Fractions

The Percentages

The Decimals

The probability

The value

The Margins

The predicted chance of success

Compiling the Book

Stage 1

Let us start with the Odds

There are two types of odds

Absolute odds and indefinite odds

To distinguish between the two-

Absolute odds are the toss of a coin is 50/50 or Evens

Therefore you have a 50% chance of it being Heads and a 50% chance of it being Tails

Now if I was to offer you 5/1 for it being Heads this would be known as indefinite odds, an enticer or a teaser if you like!

Basically all bookmakers offer indefinite odds that are unbalanced and designed to entice

This is where they incorporate the Margin/the over round / the over broke or spread

Two Sides two every coin

For every bet there is a need for two parties to have different opinions of a betting outcome

For the purpose of this exercise these will be known as

Party A. (the Bookmaker/layer. Or he who offers the odds)

And

Party B. (the Backer/the bettor or he who takes the odds)

There are also two sides to the actual odds

These are known as odds on and odds against

What this basically means is that if party A Offers 2/1 and Party B. Accepts those odds

Then

Party A will have odds of 1/ 2 and Party B will have odds of 2/ 1

This works with “odds on” equations to.

For example-

The- “odds on” Wager offered by party A. Maybe 1/6

In this case party B will take the odds of 1/6 and party A would secure himself odds of 6/1 + His/hers profit Margin.

(This profit Margin is known as the over round. The over broke. The spread or just profit margin)

Now for a bookmaker to guarantee himself overall profit he must apply a simple rule known as “odds coupling.

Odds coupling

This is always applied when compiling a book for any individual event

So realistically the odds on offer are indefinite, you would not get 1/3 for party B opposing 3/1 for party A

Basically “Odds coupling” is when the odds are slightly disproportionate to each other when compiling both sides of probability to a bet

This can easily be recognised when betting on betting exchanges where the layside may offer 5.4 and the back side may offer 4.9

(Not the same/disproportioned odds)

What this means is that if party B is getting 4/ 1 then party B must adjust his odds when compiling to incorporate a small percentage of profit for his/her book ( The over round )

This is where we need to convert the odds from fractions into percentages and then back to fractions again.

So let us say we have odds of 3/1

This tells us that there are 4 parts to this bet (3/1 is the same as 3+1 when betting)

Now what this tells us is that Party A has 3 chances in 4 of winning

And party B only has 1 chance in 4 of winning

Therefore if we convert these odds to percentages

Party A has a 75% chance of winning opposed to Party B who only has a 25% chance of winning)

Now to ensure the bookmaker or party A incorporates is over round or profit margin he must at least adjust his percentage to 76% this would give him a 1% Margin on the Spread or 76%/25%

So effectively odds of 3/1 will not be coupled with 1/ 3 when making the book. Instead the odds may appear more like this

Party B would use the odds of 2/7 instead of 1/3 because this will allow him a 77.52% profit ratio if he wins

And party B on the other side of the odds would be 3/1 allowing him a probability of 25% as a winning chance according to the odds on offer to him

As you can see Party A has incorporated this margin on just one horse if he did this in a ten horse race he would have created an over round of 25.2% this is made up of the odd 2.52% he has added to each selection by disproportioning the opposing odds

Therefore the definition of odds coupling is to disproportionate opposing odds from the layers side Party A.

Opposed to proportioned odds on the backers side /Party B

Stage 2

The Fractions

The Fractions are quite simply percentages and Decimals written in a different form

Again there are two sides to a bet

Party A.The Bookmaker/layer

Party B. The backer

If the odds were absolute or real, a table of odds would look something like this

Bookmaker Backer

1/3 3/1

75% chance of winning 25% chance of winning

In an odd’s on wager the tables would be the other way round

Bookmaker Backer

3/1 1/3

25% chance of winning 75% chance of winning

Stage 3

The percentages

The percentages are the same as Fractions and Decimals also written in a different form

Bookmaker Backer

75% chance of winning 25% chance of winning

1/3 3/1

Etc…

Stage 4

The Decimals

Decimal odds are a simpler way of working out the odds and don’t give you a headache every time you want to place a bet.

Do you know the difference between 2/9 and 4/7?

No? Well, not many people do. But with decimals you’d know instantly.

So, how do decimal odds work? Well, if the decimal odds are 4.4 and you place a back bet of £10 and win, your total return is £10 x 4.4 = £44.(less any commissions that may be added by the betting exchange or bookmaker)

This is equivalent to a traditional price of 7/2

The key part to remember is that decimal odds always include the unit stake – thus every price you see on Betfair will be >1.

Example-

Fractional odds represent the profit – 5/1 means you will win five pounds for every one pound staked. And odds of 5/1 will shown as 5+1 the (unit stake) thus showing 6.0 as the equivalent odds

Likewise odds of 7/2 are calculated as follows 7 divided by 2=3.5 plus the unit stake >1 now equates to 4.5

So 7/2 is 3.5 + 1 which equals 4.5

This may take some time to come to terms with but in the meantime you can go to the “Betfair” website and use there odds converter tool absolutely free

You’ll be up to par in no time!

Also once you can calculate fractions to decimals it makes working out predicted percentage much easier

Example-

Odds of 5/2 are converted to percentages as follows

5 divided by 2 =2.5

Now divide into 100 (100%)

This equals 100/2.5 = 40

Therefore 5/2 represents a predicted 40% of that bet winning if the odds are absolute or real

Stage 5

The Probabilities

This is the biggest illusion when betting on horse racing

Why?

Firstly every horse in a race as some chance of winning

Therefore we must assume that all horses start off on a level playing field and thereafter a book is compiled by the odds compiler or bookmaker to create an in-balance

Some selections will be judged to have a greater chance and some to have a lesser chance of winning and therefore odds will fluctuate across the book

Shorter odds will be offered to selections that are deemed to be a better choice when predicting a winner

And longer odds for those expected to have less chance of winning

This is where the backer can obtain value in there betting!

Stage 6

Value

Definition: Obtaining a better price from the odds on offer than are predicted to be correct

In simple terms if the odd on offer are 3/1 then it is predicted that the selection has a 25% chance of winning

But what if the absolute or real chance of winning was 40%

Then the odds should actually be 5/2

(5 divided by 2 =2.5) (100% divided by 2.5 =40%)

If this was the case you would achieve odds of 3/1 which would return 3 times the stake placed from a bet that should only be returning 2.5 times your stake at 5/2

Also you have got higher odds for a 40% probability of winning opposed to the odds compilers prediction being that the selection of 3/1 should only give a winning chance of 25%

So therefore in this case providing the selection goes on to win

You would have gained some value!

Stage 7

The Margins

When a backer chooses his or hers selections he/she usually does this by reading or studying various items of form

Or a system based on some criteria

Or a tipster

What he/she often fails to account for when placing bets are-

The over round/over broke/ profit margins that are incorporated in the odds on offer or the spread as it is known

The following articles and example will simplify the structure of the book to enable the understanding of absolute or real percentages of the “Book”

Stage 8

The predicted chance of success

A great way evaluate your predicted chance of achieving a winning outcome is to use the following rule.

The rule is-

“Whatever you think, think the opposite”

Example of this rule is as follows-

If you are offered odds of 3/1 or 4.0 this means that you have a 1 in 4 chance of success provided that the odds are absolute

This equates to you having a 25% chance of success.

Apply the rule and. Think the opposite!

This means you have a 75% chance of losing

(which does not include the over round margin or spread)

All of a sudden the bet does not look so appealing, this is where we have to use our own judgement based on fact, form and analysis to allow you to decide whether or not you think the chance of winning is greater than predicted, for that selection

Stage 9

Compiling and creating “the book”

As a bookmaker.A knowledge of percentages is vital and for many learning these numbers will become second nature

In order for a bookmaker to secure a profit from the book the percentages for all runners combined must together equate to a number greater than 100%

Occasionally a bookmaker will compile or adjust odds to make the book under round or over broke in order to attract business (All runners combined equal less than 100%)

In doing so he puts is book at risk of potentially making a loss

However in most circumstance the book is over round

Example of this is shown in the following race compilation-

This is taken from a real race from Friday October 7th 2011

Wolverhampton 18.10

The 32 RedPoker Median Auction Stake

Odds for each selection

Selection

Odds converted to percentage

True Odds all 9/1

True chance of winning

100% divide by 9+1=10%

Evens

Chelsea Mick

50%

9/1 true odds

10% average chance of winning

3/1

Oblitereight

25%

13/2

Mr Fong

13.30%

7/1

Elmora

12.50%

10/1

Hi There

9.10%

12/1

Statement of Intent

7.70%

25/1

Kings Future

3.80%

25/1

Path Finder

3.80%

25/1

The Cornish Cowboy

3.80%

50/1

Tresabella

2.00%

Totals=131%

True totals are ten horses with and average 10% per horse equal to-

100%

131% – 100% = 31% as the Over round or Spread or Profit Margin

Betting forecast- Evs Chelsea Mick, 3/1 Oblitereight, 13/2 Mr Fong, 7/1 Elmora, 10/1 Hi There, 12/1 Statementofintent, 25/1 King’s Future, 25/1 Path Finder, 25/1 Thecornishcowboy, 50/1 Tresabella

Thus- the over round here is 31% is achieved by the bookmaker for this race

In theory a backer who staked according to the percentage on every selection would stake 131 units. However whatever horse wins will only result in 100 units being returned. Therefore the bookmaker would make 31 units profit or 31%

This is generally how a book would look with an over round included in the Odds or prices!

The Number of Ways to Make Money Online Has Increased – What is an Affiliate?

Technology today allows people to easily access everything they need by a clicking away. Online marketing, online shopping, online gambling, online jobs the online world is definitely becoming more popular. The addition of portable online devices such as the iPad and more capable mobile phones has helped this trend. Existing businesses are trying to keep their profit and increase their market share by making money and doing business online.

Since experiencing global economic crisis the number of jobless people have increased and they are now more people dedicating time on searching ways on how to make income online. Online jobs such as home based freelance essay writing and home based data entry are among the popular search on how to make income online. People must be very careful in choosing the legitimate websites that offers ideas on how to make income online. However there are a lot of legitimate websites offering ways to earn.

One way of earning online is by advertising your product or services or other people product or services as a affiliate. When we speak of affiliate marketing, this means transactions between online businesses and website owners. Website owners make and post advertisements on their sites that support services and products of their business partner. Both parties involved in affiliate marketing achieve shares of profit. You can easily earn profits with affiliate marketing through these three ways:

PPC (Pay per Click). This is one of the most famous ways to earn profits in affiliate marketing. This generates money during every customer visit in one of the products websites. Website owners usually provide a link to the products official website Website owners earn profits with each click of the visitor. Click amounts can be dollars or cents, which relies on the commissions amount and product.

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Make Money With a Dutch Betting System

Dutch Betting or Dutching has been around for years but it’s often been very difficult to place such a bet even if you have a strong betting system! This has all changed with the advent of Betfair and other online gambling sites and dutch bets are now very easy to place.

So what exactly is a dutch bet? Very simply it’s a multiple bet covering a number of outcomes. In horse betting dutching means we back more than one horse as potential race winner and the attractions are obvious.

Even if we have some excellent racing tips for profits there are often many differing views from the experts as to which horse will cross the line first. A dutch bet allows us to cover these and back moe then one runner. It may sound like an instant path to profits but trust me a robust strategy is needed!

Inevitably is we back more than one horse only one can win and we have to allow for our losing bets. We can do this by backing a combination of horses within a certain odds range. The foundation of any dutch bet system is some simple mathematics – actually this is the same for any betting system in my mind!

Backers of race favourites can make good profits but when surprise results come, as they do, they can hurt your betting bank. Placing bets on several runners can ease the pain of these surprise results and ensure more consistent profits.

Dutching calculators will complete some of the potentially complex calculations for you and are very useful. The system I use relies on level stakes and does not need a dutching calculator or the use of racing tips. I use Betfair for the system as it’s quick to place multiple bets and the odds tend to be 20% or more higher than many other bookies. At the end of the day Betfair don’t care if you win as they still earn their commission so you won’t get banned for using a dutch bet system!

The attractions of multiple bets on a race are obvious but don’t be tempted to leap in without a solid strategy. To learn more about dutch and other betting systems visit my Blog where I test and review the best and worst.

Calculating Tissue Prices

Before we get into the main part of the discussion about how to calculate tissue prices I would like to discuss betting forecasts. I have had a number of emails asking about how to go about making tissue prices and betting forecasts. Now I am sure that everybody is asking about how to make tissue prices and not betting forecasts. There is a difference but not many people know it and so I thought it was important to start by explaining the difference. A tissue price is a price or probability that you have given the horse based on your handicapping (whether manual or computer based) that you think represents the horse’s chance of winning the race. If you can get odds that are the same or higher then this would represent value for your bet. Some manual handicappers create their tissue price for a horse already incorporating a minimum edge required and so then the tissue is the minimum odds you would accept and already has any edge built in. When you talk about creating a tissue for a race then you mean that you want to put a price on every horse in the race and usually this would mean having a book of 100% unless you have specifically decided to put an over-round on it. A betting forecast on the other hand is what you will get from the Racing Post, Sporting Life or most other sites that offer information on horse racing. This is a forecast of what they expect the starting price to be for the horse. In other words it is a forecast of how the general public will bet. As I hope you can see there is a very big difference between the two.

How do we create tissue prices for our horses? There are really only two ways of doing this and the first is very simple to explain. Use your knowledge and skill. Yup, that’s it. This is mainly used by people who handicap races by hand or who at least make the final decision based on their own analysis. The best way to start is by going back through your records (or you can just start from now if you wish) and beginning to give all of your contenders a percentage chance of winning the race. You will then need to convert this into odds and when you have done enough horses you will start to see if you are correct by looking back at all the horses you gave, for example, between 20% and 25% and seeing how often they actually won. If they actually won 10% of the time then you need to go back and re-assess how you are giving them their percentage as you are way off. If you get the actual winners between 20% and 25% then you are good at assessing the horses chances of winning and now you can begin to use your tissues to find overlays and increase the value in your bets.

It is likely that the group of people who will use this first method are much smaller than the group that will use the second. This is because the first method requires a lot of practice until you are good at assessing the horses chance of winning accurately and even then it is likely to be in a specialised race type. Do not be cheated into thinking that the second method is going to prove any less time consuming as it won’t. But with spreadsheets such as Excel performing a number of database tasks these days it is going to be much easier to analyse the information than it might otherwise be. The process for creating a tissue is to calculate a power rating for each horse. It is important to note that different race types are likely to require different information in the power rating to create an accurate tissue price. Calculating ratings and power ratings is for another article. I shall assume that you have a final rating for each horse however you have come about it. All of the calculations will also assume that the higher rated a horse is then the higher chance it has of winning the race as this is the most common way of compiling a final rating for a horse. To create your tissue price is actually fairly simple. I shall give our horse one to four a rating as below:

Horse 1 – 80

Horse 2 – 65

Horse 3 – 30

Horse 4 – 5

We want to convert these ratings into the horse’s chances of winning the race. The first step is to add every horse’s rating together which gives us:

80 + 65 + 30 + 5 = 180

To get the horses probability of winning the race we simply divide their rating by this figure. This would give us:

Horse 1 – 0.44

Horse 2 – 0.36

Horse 3 – 0.17

Horse 4 – 0.03

If you add up all these probabilities then they come to 1. You may find that sometimes they come to more or less than 1 and this, if it is a small amount, is usually just due to rounding the figures up or down. We then convert these probabilities into odds by dividing 1 by the probability of the horse in question. If you would like to read about how to convert odds to probabilities then please look at the article ‘Converting Odds To Probabilities’. We now have a tissue price for the horses in this race of:

Horse 1 – 2.27

Horse 2 – 2.78

Horse 3 – 5.88

Horse 4 – 33.33

If you were looking for value then this is the minimum odds you would accept. Always remember that if you are placing your bets with Betfair then they take 5% commission and so the displayed odds are not what you will receive after their commission. That is it, it really is that simple to calculate a tissue price. Getting accurate power ratings is the hardest part. There are also many more complex ways which can be used to make them more accurate. An example of one would be to use a monte-carlo simulation with each horse’s probability distribution in it so that horses with a higher variance in their performance get lower odds. An accurate tissue price can be made by having a good power rating and using the method described here though and this should be achieved before attempting to perfect it.